Jennifer Ellison Brown: Principles of training and conditioning

first_img Fitness cannot be stored for future use. It will disappear if training stops. It takes only three to four weeks for the body to get out of condition. For example, strength training makes the muscles thicken. This is called hypertrophy. If the training stops, the muscle shrinks, leading to atrophy. Therefore, to maintain any improvements, exercise or training has to be repeated regularly. Training is a process based on principles which try to improve physical fitness and motor skills. It involves a balance between work, rest and recovery. Without proper rest, over training and burnout can occur. This, in time, causes performance and motivation to decrease. We all have some natural ability in sport. However, ability alone is not enough. Therefore, for steady progress and to avoid injury, the basic principles should be followed in planning an effective training programme. These five principles are designed to guide the achievement of fitness in a safe way. – Specificity – train for our own particular sport. – Progression – increase training gradually. – Overload – work harder than normal. – Reversibility – we lose fitness if we stop training. – Variation – make training interesting. The body needs time to recover and adapt to training. Therefore, the stress placed on the body must be gradual or progressive. If the stress is built up too quickly, the risk of injury is great; also, if the challenge is too difficult, it could lead to demotivation. The body training threshold informs us when training is at the optimal level. Progressive loading, with the right amount of rest period for recovery, should result in performance improvement. Training must be varied to avoid tedium (boredom). This is done by using a variety of different training methods to keep the enthusiasm and motivation. For example, follow a long workout with a short one, a high intensive session with a relaxed one, or a high-speed session with a slow one. Varying training methods also helps to avoid injuries. Principles of training Principle of specificity Principle of progressioncenter_img Principle of overload The body will adapt to extra stress, therefore allowing the systems to work harder than normal will increase fitness. This is done by basing the training on the FITT principle, which is increasing Frequency, Intensity and Time for the Type of activity or exercise. For example, running more times per week, completing the run in a shorter time or increasing the distance, will aid in improving aerobic fitness. Each method will overload the aerobic system, which will gradually adapt to cope with the overload, hereby improving fitness. Principle of reversibility Principle of  variation This is choosing the right training for the sport or precise exercise for specific muscle groups. The type of training or exercise must be right for the type of improvement we need. Training should focus on the physiological and the psychological factors special to the activity for which the person is being trained. For example, sprinters must include a lot of speed work in their training to develop their fast-twitch muscle fibres.last_img read more


first_imgGardai have confirmed that ‘human remains’ washed up on a Donegal beach last week are not human at all.The Garda Pres office said yesterday that tests showed the remains which were thought to be part of a leg were not part of human anatomy.The ‘remains’ were discovered on Sunday week last by a family out walking on the beach at Magheragallon in West Donegal around 2.30pm. The scene was examined, the remains removed for examination and the coroner was notified.It is understood the remains were found by people enjoying the summer weather at the beach.However it is still not known the origins of the remains or from what animal they once belonged.GARDAI REVEAL THAT ‘LEG’ WASHED UP ON BEACH WAS NOT HUMAN was last modified: June 19th, 2013 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:beachhuman remainsmagheragallonwashed uplast_img read more

Kane’s proven himself as a top-class striker at World Cup – Oxlade-Chamberlain

first_imgAnd ‘The Ox’ is confident we have a chance.“I definitely think we have the talent, there’s no doubting that,” the Liverpool star added.“A lot of it comes down to who turns up on the day.“I know the team have been working massively on being resilient and hard to beat, sticking together until the end – so far the boys shown that really well.“We’ve given ourselves the best chance and that’s all we can do.”Listen to a clip of Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain on England’s World Cup hopes above, or click here for the full interview!talkSPORT are with listeners all day and all night at this year’s 2018 FIFA World Cup™ with over 800 hours of World Cup content and all 64 games live across the talkSPORT network. And Oxlade-Chamberlain says Kane’s ability to continue his Spurs strike rate – having scored 41 goals this season – on the World Cup stage makes him one of the best on the planet right now.“We all know how capable he is of scoring, but to take it to the World Cup is what all top goalscorers try to do,” he told talkSPORT’s Adrian Durham.“He’s on a great run of form at the moment and long may that continue in this tournament.“He’s been brilliant leading the boys, not just vocally, but with his performances, which is massive.”Oxlade-Chamberlain also believes England have the players to compete with the best for World Cup glory this summer.After back-to-back wins over Tunisia and Panama, the excitement levels have reached fever-pitch back home and there are hopes the Three Lions can mount a challenge to end over 50 years of hurt. 2 England celebrate during Sunday’s 6-1 win over Panama England captain Harry Kane has cemented his status as one of the world’s best strikers by taking his club form to the World Cup, believes Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain.The Liverpool midfielder spoke exclusively to talkSPORT on Tuesday about his injury woe, missing out on the Champions League final and his heartbreak at being forced to watch England’s campaign from his sofa.And he heaped praise on Kane, who has led by example in Russia by doing what he does best – hitting the back of the net.The Tottenham striker is the World Cup’s leading marksman with five goals from the Three Lions’ first two games – including a hat-trick against Panama. Kane leaves the pitch in Nizhny Novgorod with the match ball 2last_img read more