Jennifer Ellison Brown: Principles of training and conditioning

first_img Fitness cannot be stored for future use. It will disappear if training stops. It takes only three to four weeks for the body to get out of condition. For example, strength training makes the muscles thicken. This is called hypertrophy. If the training stops, the muscle shrinks, leading to atrophy. Therefore, to maintain any improvements, exercise or training has to be repeated regularly. Training is a process based on principles which try to improve physical fitness and motor skills. It involves a balance between work, rest and recovery. Without proper rest, over training and burnout can occur. This, in time, causes performance and motivation to decrease. We all have some natural ability in sport. However, ability alone is not enough. Therefore, for steady progress and to avoid injury, the basic principles should be followed in planning an effective training programme. These five principles are designed to guide the achievement of fitness in a safe way. – Specificity – train for our own particular sport. – Progression – increase training gradually. – Overload – work harder than normal. – Reversibility – we lose fitness if we stop training. – Variation – make training interesting. The body needs time to recover and adapt to training. Therefore, the stress placed on the body must be gradual or progressive. If the stress is built up too quickly, the risk of injury is great; also, if the challenge is too difficult, it could lead to demotivation. The body training threshold informs us when training is at the optimal level. Progressive loading, with the right amount of rest period for recovery, should result in performance improvement. Training must be varied to avoid tedium (boredom). This is done by using a variety of different training methods to keep the enthusiasm and motivation. For example, follow a long workout with a short one, a high intensive session with a relaxed one, or a high-speed session with a slow one. Varying training methods also helps to avoid injuries. Principles of training Principle of specificity Principle of progressioncenter_img Principle of overload The body will adapt to extra stress, therefore allowing the systems to work harder than normal will increase fitness. This is done by basing the training on the FITT principle, which is increasing Frequency, Intensity and Time for the Type of activity or exercise. For example, running more times per week, completing the run in a shorter time or increasing the distance, will aid in improving aerobic fitness. Each method will overload the aerobic system, which will gradually adapt to cope with the overload, hereby improving fitness. Principle of reversibility Principle of  variation This is choosing the right training for the sport or precise exercise for specific muscle groups. The type of training or exercise must be right for the type of improvement we need. Training should focus on the physiological and the psychological factors special to the activity for which the person is being trained. For example, sprinters must include a lot of speed work in their training to develop their fast-twitch muscle fibres.last_img read more

US$14.2M Police Salary Allotment Raises Eyebrows

first_img-UNPOL, EU Reps AlarmThe US$14.2M out of the US$16.3M allotted to the Liberia National Police (LNP) in the 2017/18 fiscal budget for compensation to include salaries for civilian and paramilitary personnel overshadowed the release of a report on the Security Actions for Everyone (SAFE) Project yesterday.An honorarium and special and general allowances were also captured in the US$14.2 million, with US$3.1 million accounting for “non-financial assets.”The US$3.1 million, the police said, was intended for support and operations during the 2017 presidential and legislative elections.The report, released in Monrovia, covered police facilities and operations in four of the 15 counties, including Bong, Lofa, Montserrado, and Nimba, as well as police-community engagement.It was jointly conducted by International Alert, Liberia National Law Enforcement Agency (LNLEA), and the Center for Justice and Peace Studies (CIPS) with funding from the European Union (EU).It comes in the midst of the reported deplorable condition of prison facilities and other logistical situations experienced by the police.Yesterday’s forum was attended by representatives of the EU, United Nations Police in Liberia (UNPOL), and authorities of the LNP, among others.Meanwhile, participants agreed for the establishment of a Policing Trust Fund to provide support for needed police operations that are not reflected in the national budget.In separate remarks, European Union representative Agniesille Napierala and UNPOL’s Tabitha Mbugua said they believe that the allotment was unfair and unbalanced to make the country a safer place.“The Government of Liberia needs to improve on the budget to settle the imbalance and unfair distribution in it,” Mbugua, who proxy for the UNPOL commander, noted.“Such an imbalance in the budget would make it very difficult to have a strong partnership with the community in terms of support,” she said.Napierala also said the budget, that is hugely dominated by salaries, does not ensure accountability and transparency in the operation of the police.“How will the police manage to support the Community Watch Forum that is providing security assistance in the country to ensure a safer Liberia with the allotment of US$14.2 million as salary payment to staff of the LNP?” Napierala wondered. “How will they improve on the deplorable condition of prison facilities throughout the country?”Police Deputy Inspector General for Manpower and Training, William Mulbah admitted the huge financial difficulty posed by the budgetary allotment.“With the over 5,000 police officers, to set aside US$14.2 million for salaries is unfair and demeaning, and we had to work on it,” Mulbah assured.Despite the huge salaries, Mulbah said, they have made significant efforts in improving the relationship between the police and the community to make the country peaceful and safe.“This is evidenced by our handling of the ongoing elections process and our engagement with the community in combating crimes and improving on civilian complaints against police officers,” he indicated.The report said some police stations in the four counties do not have the necessary logistics for effective operations.“Some do not even have typewriters or computers and printers, and they have to resort to using commercial typewriters for their office operations. Many officers do not have uniforms and accessories and so, they have resolved to wear t-shirts as uniforms,” the report indicated.Cecil B. Griffiths, the president of LNLEA who read the report, said: “Moreover, many police stations in the rural areas, such as Zorzor and Flumpa police stations in Lofa County are in very deplorable conditions and need urgent renovation while the Ganta Police Station in Nimba County is in need of expansion.”The report also frowned on civilians recruited to assist police to man checkpoints in the country.“Community members complained that some of the police aides are the ones creating problems for them and are even operating without the supervision of the commander of police,” the report noted.The report also recommended that the police budget should be re-framed to capture the need for police stations in the counties.“Community members recommended that each police station should at least have one vehicle or motorbike, a computer, printer, solar panel or generator with a regular supply of gasoline, stationery and supplies, one smartphone for internet connectivity and food for the upkeep of detainees and suspects,” the report said.“To provide information about police work, community members are recommending that every police station should provide monthly or quarterly statistics on crimes, arrests, prosecutions and information about complaint mechanisms,” it indicated.On police achievement, the report said: “The police authorities made strong effort to promote accountability by issuing a number of tags to officers for identification purposes. This is a highly commendable initiative and we hope that the LNP authority will follow-up to ensure that all officers will have their names on their tags. Regular meeting between the police and community members is ongoing in addition to the SAFE project community dialogue; they are also having a regular policing forum in the various communities.”Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more