Jennifer Ellison Brown: Principles of training and conditioning

first_img Fitness cannot be stored for future use. It will disappear if training stops. It takes only three to four weeks for the body to get out of condition. For example, strength training makes the muscles thicken. This is called hypertrophy. If the training stops, the muscle shrinks, leading to atrophy. Therefore, to maintain any improvements, exercise or training has to be repeated regularly. Training is a process based on principles which try to improve physical fitness and motor skills. It involves a balance between work, rest and recovery. Without proper rest, over training and burnout can occur. This, in time, causes performance and motivation to decrease. We all have some natural ability in sport. However, ability alone is not enough. Therefore, for steady progress and to avoid injury, the basic principles should be followed in planning an effective training programme. These five principles are designed to guide the achievement of fitness in a safe way. – Specificity – train for our own particular sport. – Progression – increase training gradually. – Overload – work harder than normal. – Reversibility – we lose fitness if we stop training. – Variation – make training interesting. The body needs time to recover and adapt to training. Therefore, the stress placed on the body must be gradual or progressive. If the stress is built up too quickly, the risk of injury is great; also, if the challenge is too difficult, it could lead to demotivation. The body training threshold informs us when training is at the optimal level. Progressive loading, with the right amount of rest period for recovery, should result in performance improvement. Training must be varied to avoid tedium (boredom). This is done by using a variety of different training methods to keep the enthusiasm and motivation. For example, follow a long workout with a short one, a high intensive session with a relaxed one, or a high-speed session with a slow one. Varying training methods also helps to avoid injuries. Principles of training Principle of specificity Principle of progressioncenter_img Principle of overload The body will adapt to extra stress, therefore allowing the systems to work harder than normal will increase fitness. This is done by basing the training on the FITT principle, which is increasing Frequency, Intensity and Time for the Type of activity or exercise. For example, running more times per week, completing the run in a shorter time or increasing the distance, will aid in improving aerobic fitness. Each method will overload the aerobic system, which will gradually adapt to cope with the overload, hereby improving fitness. Principle of reversibility Principle of  variation This is choosing the right training for the sport or precise exercise for specific muscle groups. The type of training or exercise must be right for the type of improvement we need. Training should focus on the physiological and the psychological factors special to the activity for which the person is being trained. For example, sprinters must include a lot of speed work in their training to develop their fast-twitch muscle fibres.last_img read more

Illegal Mining Activity Resurfaces in Nimba County

first_imgFlashback: Mining equipment floating over Cestos River near Buutuo Headquarters, a stone’s throw from the Ivoirian border. This is occurring all over the country. Several “undesirable” foreign nationals linkedIllegal mining activities have reportedly resurfaced in Nimba County with concentration recorded around the west bank of the Cestos River, near Behwalay Town in the Kparblee Administrative District.The identities of those foreign nationals, who are allegedly connected to the illegal mining activities, and those who hired them as well as how they arrived at the river as their point of convergence have so far remained unknown, though locals claimed many of the miners come from countries in West Africa.“They miners have reportedly installed two dredges in the river and are carrying on intensive mining activities during day and night hours without any consideration to the environment,” eyewitnesses have said.The proliferation of suspected illegal alluvial mining, involving foreigners, is becoming alarming across the country, specifically in Nimba County where 40 persons were recently trapped under debris in Gbanepea Town, near Tappita District.Last year, a group of unknown men, believed to be Malians, surfaced around the northern town of Buutuo with the same floating dredge for mining in Cestos River near the Liberian border with la Côte d’Ivoire. Residents however raised alarm, which thwarted the foreigners’ intention to mine near Bwelay Town, situated east of Buutuo Headquarters.With this latest development in the mining sector, it is not clear whether the governments of Liberia and La Cote d’Ivoire are officially informed about the presence of those allegedly linked to the border trade.In the wake of the report, Nimba Superintendent David Dorr Cooper, has halted the alleged mining activity around Cestos River, Behwalay Town, shortly after receiving reports of unfolding developments.Meanwhile, the office of Superintendent Dorr Cooper has invited to Sanniquellie, the county political capital, all those that are allegedly linked to the mining trade, to explain whether any government officials authorized them to mine minerals in those areas.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more