Rotary Clock Discovered in Bacteria

first_imgWhat could be more mechanical than a mechanical clock?  A biochemist has discovered one in the simplest of organisms, one-celled cyanobacteria.  Examining the three complex protein components of its circadian clock, he thinks he has hit on a model that explains its structure and function: it rotates to keep time.  Though it keeps good time, this clock is only about 10 billionths of a meter tall.    Scientists have known the parts of the cyanobacterial clock.  They are named KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC.  Jimin Wang of the Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale, publishing in Structure,1 has found an elegant solution to how the parts interact.  He was inspired by the similarity of these parts to those in ATP synthase (see 04/30/2005 entry), a universal enzyme known as a rotary motor.  Though structurally different, the Kai proteins appear to operate as another rotary motor – this time, a clock.    We learned last time (see 09/15/2004 entry) that the parts interact in some way in sync with the diurnal cycle, but the mechanism was still a “black box.”  Wang found that the KaiC part, a six-sided hexagonal cylinder, has a central cavity where the KaiA part can fit when it undergoes an “activation” that changes its shape, somewhat like unfolding scissors.  Like a key, it fits into the central shaft and turns.  The KaiB part, like a wing nut, fastens on KaiB at the bottom of the KaiC carousel.  For every 120° turn of the spindle, phosphate groups attach to the outside of the carousel, till KaiC is fully saturated, or phosphorylated.  This apparently happens to multiple Kai complexes during the night.    How does this keep time?  When unphosphorylated, KaiC affects the expression of genes.  During the night, when complexed with the other two parts, it is repressed from acting, effectively shutting down the cell for the night.  Apparently many of these complexes form and dissociate each cycle.  As the complexes break up in the morning, expression resumes, and the cell wakes up.  When KaiC separates from the other parts, it is destroyed, stopping its repression of genes and stimulating the creation of more KaiC.  “In summary,” he says, “the Kai complexes are a rotary clock for phosphorylation, which sets the destruction pace of the night-dominant Kai complexes and timely releases KaiA.”  The system sets up a day-night oscillation feedback loop that allows the bacterium keep in sync with the time of day.    Wang shares the surprise that a bacterium could have a clock that persists longer than the cell-division cycle.  This means that the act of cell division does not break the clock:The discovery of a bacterial clock unexpectedly breaks the paradigm of biological clocks, because rapid cell division and chromosome duplication in bacteria occur within one circadian period (Kondo et al., 1994 and Kondo et al., 1997).  In fact, these cyanobacterial oscillators in individual cells have a strong temporal stability with a correlation time of several months.    (Emphasis added in all quotes.)Wang’s article has elegant diagrams of the parts and how they precisely fit together.  In his model, the KaiC carousel resembles the hexagonal F1 motor of ATP synthase, and the KaiA “key” that fits into the central shaft resembles the camshaft.  KaiB, in turn, acts like the inhibitor in ATP synthase.  “The close relationship between the two systems may well extend beyond their structural similarity,” he suggests in conclusion, “because the rhythmic photosynthesis-dependent ATP generation is an important process under the Kai circadian regulation.”1Jimin Wang, “Recent Cyanobacterial Kai Protein Structures Suggest a Rotary Clock,” Structure, Volume 13, Issue 5, May 2005, Pages 735-741, doi:10.1016/j.str.2005.02.011.Need we tell readers what we are about to say?  “There is no mention of evolution in this paper.”  The inverse law of Darwinese stands: the more detailed the discussion of cellular complexity, the less the tendency to mention evolution.    This is wonderful stuff.  The cell is alive with wheels, gears, motors, monorails, winches, ratchets and clocks.  Paley would be pleased.(Visited 9 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Butterfly Evolution Pushed 70 Million Years Before Flowers

first_imgNew fossil evidence puts the squeeze on Darwinians, making butterflies appear suddenly, with complex mouth parts, before there were any flowers to pollinate. Time to rescue the theory again.Keeping the evolutionary story consistent is like having to modify a play with the characters constantly making their entry earlier than they were supposed to. We’ve seen that numerous times. The latest is about butterflies (Lepidopterans), the darlings of the insect world. Reporters are scrambling to keep the crown on King Charles (Darwin) in the aftermath of fossil butterfly scales found in Jurassic rock they claim is 70 million Darwin Years older than the evolution script says they were supposed to appear on stage. This means they appeared already as modern-looking butterflies 200 million Darwin Years ago.Moths and butterflies existed during Jurassic era, millions of years before flowering plants, team reports (Science Daily). “A team of scientists report on new evidence that primitive moths and butterflies existed during the Jurassic period, approximately 50 million years earlier than the first flowering plants, shedding new light on one of the most confounding cases of co-evolution.” It wasn’t co-evolution, though, if butterflies lived just fine for 50 million Darwin Years before the plants they were supposed to co-evolve with first appeared.Scientists have accidentally found the oldest ever butterfly or moth fossils  (The Conversation): Now researchers in the Netherlands have discovered Lepidoptera fossils that are older than any previously found, proving these familiar insects have been around for at least 200m years,” worries paleontologist David Martill. “The particular type of fossils found mean we have to rethink Lepidoptera evolution.” [insert Tontologism here; see Darwin Dictionary].The Oldest Butterflies on Earth Had No Flowers to Feed On (Live Science). “Some of the fossils share features with modern moths in the suborder Glossata, which have a straw-like proboscis that can suck up fluids like nectar,” writes Darwinist reporter Laura Geggel. “Given their complexity, and the time it would’ve taken to evolve to have such complex features, these fossils push the calculated age of glossatan moths back by about 70 million years to the Late Triassic ‘refuting ancestral association of the group with flowering plants,’ the researchers wrote in the study.”Monarch butterfly using proboscis to suck nectar from a flower (Illustra Media)Darwinians still have some tricks to keep Darwin’s crown glued onto his mummy’s head. They can say that butterflies slurped on gymnosperm sap before the flowers cornered the butterfly market. That could be reasonable, since butterflies can eat tree sap and other things. They could introduce ghost lineages, imagining butterfly ancestors further back in time than they had assumed. And they can use the sidestepping tactic, smiling for the press and saying that the embarrassing situation “sheds light on evolution.”What they cannot do is show the public a series of fossils showing the gradual evolution of a proboscis, which is admittedly one of the “complex features” that should have taken time to evolve even for Darwinians. The Illustra Media film Metamorphosis shows this complexity it detail, showing close-up footage of the proboscis coming out of the chrysalis as two long half-tubes that the adult fastens together with its palpi (mouth parts). Even more challenging for evolution, this complex structure forms inside the chrysalis from a previous form—the caterpillar—that did not have a proboscis, and fed on different food. The obstacles these facts present to evolutionary theory are explained in the film.Martill hedged his bets, saying,If the fossil record can be pushed back 70m years in one stroke, it may get pushed back even further, and we’d need another way to explain the change.Whatever the trigger for the development of the butterfly proboscis, it was clearly an evolutionary innovation that resulted in phenomenal diversity and added immensely to the beauty of planet Earth.Insect fossils incl. moth at Florissant Fossil Beds (Darwin date 34 my). Photo by David Coppedge.The source paper in Science Advances advances another conundrum: these delicate little flying insects managed to survive the Triassic extinction (the “end-Triassic biotic crisis), another tangle in the convoluted story of evolution that unravels if butterfly origin precedes the catastrophe. The authors admit, “the early evolutionary history of these insects remains murky and mired in an exceedingly poor fossil record.” Now that fossil evidence pushes butterflies 70 million years back, does the paper explain how the proboscis evolved? Their answer invokes the “mother-of-necessity” angle in Darwinian storytelling: “Development of the proboscis may be regarded as an adaptive innovation to sucking free liquids for maintaining the insect’s water balance under arid conditions.” This idea should be testable. Go into the desert and see if it evolves on you. If it doesn’t, then death also “may be regarded as an adaptive innovation” to free up the gene pool for humans who happen to evolve straw-like mouths.About Those Flowers…An article on Phys.org tantalizes readers with news about “the origin of flower-making genes.” Does it succeed? Only by hand-waving about a “likely” just-so story. First, though, the author claims his turf. The first sentence announces, “Flowering plants have evolved from plants without flowers.”The DAM Law appeared on schedule in the discussion of flowering plants: namely, the phrase “Darwin’s Abominable Mystery.” Look in Science Daily, where the phrase is part and parcel of the story about the origin of flowering plants. It also appears in Science Daily‘s latest confabulation about “How flowering plants conquered the world.” Here’s the story; is it plausible?Over the last thirty years researchers have shown that the flowering plants have unparalleled rates of photosynthesis. This has allowed them to grow faster and to outcompete ferns and conifers which had dominated ecosystems for hundreds of millions of years. The secret to the metabolic success of flowering plants is their specialized leaves that facilitate faster rates of water transport and carbon dioxide uptake. But how were the flowering plants able to build leaves capable of these high rates of transpiration and photosynthesis?This new research provides a mechanism. By scouring the literature for data, the authors argue that these anatomical innovations are directly linked to the size of their genome.This speculation, naturally, does nothing to explain the origin of photosynthesis itself. It makes the beauty of large leaves a matter of accident (the Stuff Happens Law). And what good is an answer that creates more problems than it solves?Although this research answers a major question, it opens the door to many more. Why were the flowering plants able to shrink their genomes more than other plant groups? What innovations in genome structure and packing have the flowering plants exploited? How have the ferns and conifers managed to elude extinction despite their large genomes and cells?Evolutionists are not perturbed by having more questions, because it provides job security for storytellers.The mystery is not abominable. Darwin is. “Lying lips are an abomination to the Lord,” says the Good Book, “But those who deal faithfully are His delight.” (Proverbs 12:22) (Visited 892 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

IPL 2011: 10 teams for IPL-IV

first_imgWith Rajasthan Royals and Kings XI Punjab being cleared to take part in the January 8-9 Indian Premier League players’ auction in Bangalore by the Bombay High Court, the fourth season of the cash-rich Twenty20 league in April-May will be a 10-team event.”The court has given a verdict. How can we stop them?” Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) sources said when contacted after the IPL’s governing council meeting in Mumbai on Wednesday.This means IPL IV would comprise 10 teams, including the two new franchises, Kochi and Pune.Sources also said that the format would be the same as was announced in September before the BCCI decided to terminate the contracts of Rajasthan and Punjab for non-compliance of terms which was challenged in the court by the two franchises.As per the decisions taken by the IPL governing council on September 5, the forthcoming season will have 70 league matches plus four play-off matches with each team having the same number of ties (14 of which seven home and seven away) as in the previous IPL editions.The teams would be divided into two groups of five each. Each team would play the other four teams in its group twice – home and away; four of the five teams in the other group once – home or away; one of the five teams in the other group twice – home and away.The groups will be decided by a random draw. Meanwhile, a division bench of the Bombay High Court on Wednesday recused itself from the hearing of appeal filed by BCCI against a single judge’s order staying the proceedings of a disciplinary committee which is probing allegations against Lalit Modi.advertisement”Not before me,” said Chief Justice Mohit Shah of the division bench, when the appeal filed by the BCCI came up for hearing. However, Justice Shah did not give any reason. The matter would now be placed before another bench.Hearing BCCI’s plea on December 27, a vacation bench had refused to stay an earlier single bench order which had stayed till January 10 the proceedings. The vacation bench had asked the BCCI to approach a regular bench after vacations.Justice Kathawala, on December 25, had stayed the proceedings against Modi, the former IPL commissioner.BCCI had sought a stay to that order praying that the meeting of disciplinary committee comprising Arun Jaitley, Jyotiraditya Scindia and Chirayu Amin be allowed to be held on December 27 and 28.Elsewhere, the Chennai police may register a case against suspended IPL commissioner Lalit Modi for not responding to summons issued by them, but said they would wait for some more days.BCCI secretary N Srinivasan had lodged a complaint against Modi, charging him with misappropriation of `470 crore, mainly related to allotting media rights and free commercial rights.- With PTI inputslast_img

90% ICC members backed minnows

first_imgIt was not just a persistent and vociferous global demand that forced the International Cricket Council ( ICC) to change its own decision and revert to a 14-team World Cup in 2015. A major reason was that there was a pressing, though silent, pressure from within the ICC that forced,It was not just a persistent and vociferous global demand that forced the International Cricket Council ( ICC) to change its own decision and revert to a 14-team World Cup in 2015. A major reason was that there was a pressing, though silent, pressure from within the ICC that forced it to give minnows another opportunity following their superb performance this year.A top Irish official said that 90 per cent of ICC’s 105 member countries had quietly exerted pressure on the Sharad Pawar-headed world body to allow the Associate countries to compete in the next World Cup in Australia and New Zealand.Also, a threat by the Associates to seek legal opinion against the ICC if it denied them the opportunity could have played a role, though Cricket Ireland (CI) CEO Warren Deutrom would not speculate as to how much that contributed to the final outcome.”From the moment the April decision was made (by the ICC), there was a near unanimous consensus from stakeholders that it needed to be changed. The speed with which the president (Pawar) reinstated the matter for the (Executive) Board’s consideration was ample testament to this,” Deutrom told MAIL TODAY.”And it wasn’t just 90 per cent of the ICC’s member countries that sought a reversal, but also 90 per cent of FICA [Federation of International Cricketers Association] members surveyed and 90 per cent of 17,000 fans surveyed on Cricinfo ,” he revealed.Warren Deutrom, Chief Executive of Cricket Ireland.Deutrom disclosed that the Clive Lloydheaded ICC cricket committee, too, had recommended to the chief executives’ panel that the Associate countries should be retained after their superb performance in the 2011 World Cup.”It was also a recommendation of both the ICC Development and cricket committee. I think the ICC Board should be greatly commended for having the courage to review its decision,” he said.advertisementThe ICC chief executives’ committee last week decided not to press for a 10- team World Cup in 2015, following pressure from all around, including possibly a few Test-playing countries.But from the 2019 tournament, the World Cup will be a 10-team affair, with promotion- relegation coming into play for the first time.The top-eight ranked full members, or Test-playing nations, at a given time on the ICC list will automatically qualify while the bottom two places will be filled through a qualifying round. Deutrom, however, did not completely rule out re- opening of the debate later.”On the basis that the original 10- team decision was predicated on minimising one- sided uncompetitive fixtures, it’d appear reasonable to judge whether the Associates should have guaranteed places in 2019 based on their performances in 2015,” he said.”Should there be clearly competitive Associates at that event, as there were this time, it may be prudent to re- open the debate.” Cricket Ireland had the backing of the Irish government, particularly its sports minister, on the World Cup issue, and Deutrom is grateful to the ICC for retaining the tournament format.”I don’t believe there was any one moment or issue that crystallised the decision- making; rather, the ICC Board clearly realised that fairness was the primary consideration. In addition, the Board was about to approve a strategic plan in which meritocratic pathways for its major events were about to be enshrined, which meant that reestablishing the pathway to 2015 was consistent with that vision,” he averred.The Afghanistan Cricket Board (ACB) also welcomed the new lifeline for the minnows. “It is wonderful to hear that we have a chance to qualify for the 2015 World Cup. We had felt completely shut out by the earlier decision which seemed like cricket was becoming a closed shop,” said ACB CEO Nasimullah Danish.”For the 2011 World Cup, we came close to qualifying. This time we’ll try again and, even if we do not make it, at least we have the chance to try and we have the hope and excitement that come with the opportunity.”There were reports that the ICC decided to revert to the 14- team format only after a deal with its 36 Associate member countries that the number of participating countries for the World Twenty20 in 2012 and 2014 would remain 12.Deutrom, however, says that the decision was taken only on merit.”My personal feeling is that this ( deal) was never a consideration in the World Cup debate,” he said.last_img read more

Prabhas releases a new intriguing poster of Saaho to give a dose

first_imgPrabhas’ Saaho movie new postersInstagramBaahubali actor Prabhas has released a new poster from his upcoming movie Saaho, which is set for release on August 15. This intriguing poster is sure to give a dose of thrill to the audience.More than a month after creating his Instagram account, Prabhas had earlier released a poster of Saaho on his page which had gone viral. Six days after this post, the Baahubali actor has shared another brand new poster from the movie. He captioned it with, “Hey darlings, the second poster of my film, Saaho is here. Check it out! #15AugWithSaaho.”In this poster of Saaho, Prabhas is seen riding a bike and he carries an intense look with this intriguing poster. His deadly look will give a dose of thrill to his fans. A fierce look and fast paced chases are all the hints we can get from this new outing from the much awaited high octane movie. The background has broken glasses and flying cop cars to add to the action-packed poster.This new poster of Saaho has action filled to its brim which tells us that this movie will be the one to remember. Prabhas’ commendable look on the bike has set the right notes for action lovers. It has raised the bars of the viewers’ expectations and curiosity really high for the release of the film.Saaho is undoubtedly the most anticipated and highly talked film of 2019 in India. Prabhas is paired alongside Bollywood actress Shraddha Kapoor in the movie, which is simultaneously shot in three languages Hindi, Tamil and Telugu. It also has a superlative ensemble cast of Jackie Shroff, Neil Nitin Mukesh, Mandira Bedi, Chunky Panday, Mahesh Manjrekar, Arun Vijay and Murali Sharma.Saaho is a high octane action thriller which is produced by UV Creations and directed by Sujeeth. The makers are reportedly spending Rs 300 crore on its production and it is definitely the highest budget action film in India.last_img read more

Study of isotopes shows recycling of Earths crust began 3 billion years

first_img © 2011 PhysOrg.com New research suggests North American continent is a slow eroder To try to find out what has been going on with the Earth’s crust as far back in time as possible, the team took sediment samples from North and South America, Eurasia and Australia. They focused their studies on oxygen isotopes found in zircon in those samples reasoning that newer crust material would more closely resemble material found in the mantle, as external factors on the surface of the planet would impact those that have been exposed to the sun, erosion and other biologic entities.Because the ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 found in the crust is generally a narrow range and the oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 ratio on the surface is more broad, researchers can compare materials on the surface against those in the mantel to gauge how long those in the crust have been there, which in turn allows them to determine whether material in the crust is new, or has simply been recycled from below. By taking very precise measurements, the team was able to create an accurate time line of how material on the surface was formed.Specifically, they found that during the first billion and a half years of Earth’s existence, the rate of new crust formation was quite high (presumably due to meteorite collisions), at about 3 cubic kilometers annually which resulted in the creation of roughly sixty five percent of its current composition. About three billion years ago, however, smaller amounts of new material were created and more of the crust was simply recycled with material from the mantle.As a result of this change, the tectonic plates we see today began forming, growing ever more solid as the years passed, leading to the shifting that causes changes to the shape and location of the continents.The team next plans to explore the tectonic changes that occurred prior to three billion years ago, but acknowledge it will be difficult due to the dearth of rocks older than that lying on or near the planet’s surface. More information: A Change in the Geodynamics of Continental Growth 3 Billion Years Ago, Science 16 March 2012: Vol. 335 no. 6074 pp. 1334-1336. DOI:10.1126/science.1216066ABSTRACTModels for the growth of continental crust rely on knowing the balance between the generation of new crust and the reworking of old crust throughout Earth’s history. The oxygen isotopic composition of zircons, for which uranium-lead and hafnium isotopic data provide age constraints, is a key archive of crustal reworking. We identified systematic variations in hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircons of different ages that reveal the relative proportions of reworked crust and of new crust through time. Growth of continental crust appears to have been a continuous process, albeit at variable rates. A marked decrease in the rate of crustal growth at ~3 billion years ago may be linked to the onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics. Citation: Study of isotopes shows recycling of Earth’s crust began 3 billion years ago (2012, March 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-03-isotopes-recycling-earths-crust-began.htmlcenter_img Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — New research by a team of British Earth scientists shows that while the Earth’s crust was made up of new material for much of its early life, it later began to recycle material three billion years ago, leading to the development of the continents we know today. The research team came to this conclusion, as they report in their paper published in Science, after studying oxygen isotopes in zircon samples taken from several different points across the globe.last_img read more

Trinamools Mahua Moitra declares Rs 264cr assets

first_imgKolkata: Investment banker-turned-legislator Mahua Moitra, who is a Trinamool Congress candidate from West Bengal’s Krishnanagar Lok Sabha constituency, has declared movable assets worth over Rs 2.64 crore, including bank deposits in the United Kingdom. Moitra had shown more than Rs 2.5-crore movable assets in 2016, while contesting the Assembly elections from Karimpur in Nadia district. In the latest affidavit filed before the Election Commission (EC), the 44-year-old MLA has declared Rs 5,000 cash and Rs 1.43 crore in banks deposits in India, besides a bank balance of over Rs 1.30 lakh in a branch of National Westminster Bank, commonly known as NatWest, in London. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata Moitra, who has worked as a Vice President of JP Morgan in the UK, possesses a 3.2 carat diamond ring worth Rs 70 lakh, 150 grams of gold valued at Rs 5 lakh, various silver items including vase, tea and dinner set and others worth Rs 5.68 lakh, and art pieces valued at Rs 25 lakh, and a car, which she bought in 2016. After leaving her cushy job, she joined politics in September 2008, when Rahul Gandhi drafted her in the Youth Congress as a state coordinator for his “Aam Aadmi Ka Sipahi” project. Two years later, she switched to the Trinamool Congress. Moitra, a graduate in economics and mathematics from Mount Holyoke College, Massachusetts, claims that she does not own any immovable property. According to her affidavit, she owes over Rs 6.71 lakh to a bank in a vehicle loan. She has also declared that there is no pending criminal case against her.last_img read more

Annual YellowBird golf tournament raises 50000 for schools devastated by the hurricanes

first_imgTags: Top News TORONTO — Close to 120 Canadian travel professionals came out for a great day at Glen Abbey Golf Course in Oakville on Friday to support a foundation dear to their hearts: The YellowBird Foundation.The tournament raised an estimated $50,000 (final amount to be published June 15) to help schools damaged by the recent hurricanes in the Caribbean, in an effort graciously sponsored by WestJet and WestJet Vacations.It was a fun day of golfing, prizes, lunch and auctions, and this year even included a spa bus for those less interested in golfing.Everyone played well, but the golfing prizes went to:. Men’s Winner: Michael Price, Jean Lafreniere, Michael Bird, Brett Wilson. Men’s Runner-Up: Dan Langevin, Duncan Bureau, Brian Robertson, JC Girard. Mixed Winner: Jennifer Waver, Paul Poulin, Karen Salviato, Aaron Payne. Mixed Runner-Up: John Pease, Zul Shaikhali, Morgan Bell, Jim Morrison. Longest Drive #1: Devin Kinasz and Dave Thompson. Closest to hole #7: Morgan Bell and John Pease. Closest to hole #15: Morgan Bell and Aaron PayneMore news:  CIE Tours launches first-ever River Cruise CollectionSince its inception in 2005, The YellowBird Foundation has donated nearly $500,000 to educational initiatives in the Caribbean and Latin America, largely from money raised at this annual golf tournament.“As you know, some people in the Caribbean are living in poverty and the benefits of tourism do not reach them,” says Gerry Kinasz, a founder of The YellowBird Foundation and Publisher of Travelweek.  “I hope the projects we support will give children the opportunity to grow and that they will understand that there are people in the world who really want to help and see them succeed.”This year The YellowBird Foundation helped rebuild an elementary school in the Turks and Caicos. The school teaches 586 students between the ages of three and 11 and the impact from the hurricanes a few months ago caused major damage to the school structure and several classes were closed. Please watch the video below. << Previous PostNext Post >> Monday, June 4, 2018 Annual YellowBird golf tournament raises $50,000 for schools devastated by the hurricanes More news:  Kory Sterling is TL Network Canada’s new Sales Manager Canada“The YellowBird Foundation does really great things for children and education in the Caribbean, and the projects they support change every year. We support a lot of charity events at WestJet, but it is especially important to get involved in projects in a destination to which we fly,” says Jane Clementino, Director of Agency Sales, WestJet.The YellowBird Foundation and WestJet thank all the participants and look forward to welcoming everyone again next year. Posted by Travelweek Group Sharelast_img read more